The John Greely Family But in the isolation and confinement of Fort Conger, the strict discipline he had learned in the Civil War only stirred up resentment. They wanted something snazzy. The expedition's scientific records were retrieved and despite Greely's strenuous objections the bodies on Cemetery Ridge exhumed. To die is easy; very easy; it is only hard to strive, to endure, to live.". Every officer in the U.S. Army swore the oath to his country, but Lieutenant Adolphus Greely embodied it. They were too weak to do anything about it. [citation needed], In 1906, he served as military commander over the emergency situation created by the San Francisco earthquake. Aubrey Fernandez In 1905, he accepted the honor of serving as the first president of The Explorers Club and in 1915, he invited the Italian polar geographer Arnaldo Faustini to the United States for a lecture tour. David Legge Brainard achieved a new "farthest north" record of 83°23'8" on Lockwood Island. Too exhausted to bury him, Rice crawled in beside the corpse for a few hours' sleep, and then headed out with Fredericks into the half-light. And so the American expedition had a secret agenda, which was to try to reach as far north as they could, to at least beat the British record. ", The response was slow in coming. "Are not your ambition and pride guiding you," she had asked, "to the exclusion of all other thought?" Composed by David Prior with John Matthias by Leonard F. Guttridge. Officially dubbed the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition, the 25 men composing it departed St. John’s, Newfoundland, in the summer of 1881 under the command of Lt. Adolphus Greely… 1 . Commanding Greely Relief Expedition. Narrator: By March the camp had been awakened by the returning sun, and the entire crew galvanized by their next challenge: beating the British record for Farthest North. Get the latest on new films and digital content, learn about events in your area, and get your weekly fix of American history. William J. Rhees. This was the thing that overshadowed the whole, the achievement of the expedition. See Greely photos and images from satellite below, explore the aerial photographs of Greely in United States. Henrietta had resisted Greely's Arctic dreams from the first. George W. Narrator: June 20th was the sixth anniversary of Greely's wedding. The men, however, were hesitant to leave the relative safety of Fort Conger. "[11] However, his medal was the second, and last, Army presentation contrary to the combat requirement,[12] as Charles Lindbergh (an Army reservist not on active duty) received the award for his solo transatlantic flight eight years before, in 1927. Once again, a group of Army men sailed north on the Proteus, led by a man who had never been to sea: Lieutenant Ernest Garlington. It was everything Greely could have asked for. In fact, most were cavalrymen -- only weeks before they'd been stationed at outposts across the Great Plains. Theresa Leonard, Tom Montvilla It was dire. U.S. Army Military History Institute, Post Production He was a good soldier to the last — he never complained publicly of his expedition's abandonment. "The Secretaries of Navy and War," it read, "concur that nothing can be done this season to reach Mr. Greely. Narrator: Rice drove himself past the point of exhaustion, seeking to ensure their survival. _____ Washington, D.C. March 1, 1884. He took his orders and he did what he was told to do. David Brainard (Rich Porfido): "This afternoon I opened a barrel of dog biscuit and found a large percentage entirely ruined. Narrator: George Rice died in Fredericks' arms that evening. Left there with 350 tons of supplies, the team went to work building an outpost they christened Fort Conger, which would serve as their home for the coming two years. The expedition also crossed Ellesmere Island from east to west and Lt. James B. Lockwood and Sgt. Brainard led the mission. Greely offered that challenge to two teams who would vie for the prize. Storms battered them mercilessly, until they huddled on a piece of ice barely large enough to hold them. Even David Brainard was stunned by Greely's response. Lauren Noyes, An Apograph Productions Inc. film for AMERICAN EXPERIENCE Miraculously, Garlington's men all made their way to outposts on the Greenland coast over the next few weeks. Michael Robinson, Historian: The hope was that this would offer the key to a new climatic understanding of the world. Adolphus W. Greely (Tim Hopper): "With all my yearnings for you I cannot bring myself to regret coming. David Legge Brainard achieved a new "farthest north" record of 83°23'8" on Lockwood Island. Jim Lotz, Writer: There was fame to be gained. Our personalities really define themselves in adversity, and people like Rice and Brainard were showing what they were made of. And Fredericks does all he can to sustain him. Narrator: For the enlisted men, winter enforced an idleness that was no less challenging. By now, Fredericks himself was half-frozen. With the steamboat hopelessly trapped, Greely no longer had any choice. 'Greely, is this you?'". Jim Lotz, Writer: I think some of them figured they when they were up there they can make their stash and come back and have a pocket of money because they would be paid but they would have no expenses up there... nowhere to go. Darrel Tawney, Location Production Assistants It started as a scientific expedition with a bunch of people squabbling; it became a morality play. There was glory to be gained. Rice summoned the will to continue on alone for 12 more hours to Camp Clay, and sent out a rescue party. Narrator: "The facts hitherto concealed," the New York Times declared, "will make the record of the Greely colony the most dreadful and repulsive chapter in the long annals of Arctic exploration.". The ship's doctor reported that none of the survivors would have lasted another 48 hours. Many of the men wrote in their private diaries that this was absolutely foolish. And the key to understanding this system was the Polar Regions. There was scarcely room to lie down. Although his team had earned the extraordinary title of "Farthest North," and amassed a vast collection of valuable scientific observations, Greely became mired in scandal upon his return to the U.S. It wasn't clear how this pure polar science would help Americans back home. Ellsberg, Edward: "Hell on Ice", New York, 1936. It used to be in the 1700s that people would collect things and put them in cabinets of curiosity and try to identify and label what they were. An exhibition on the "Greely expedition" was part of the Columbian Exposition in 1893 and was captured on stereoscopic images. Adolphus Greely was the commanding officer of the doomed Lady Franklin Bay Expedition from 1881-1884. Directly opposite, on his hands and knees, was a dark man in a tattered dressing-gown, with a long matted beard, and brilliant, staring eyes. Do not wear mourning for me. It's amazing that they didn't all die. And he did it exceedingly well. Greely hoped to find stores of food there and to improve the chances of meeting an Army resupply ship. But Greely remained devoted to the survivors, and to the dependents of the men who had perished. A daunting story of shipwreck, starvation, mutiny and cannibalism amongst a group left abandoned in the high Arctic. There were only six men still alive three years later. The men don't lose sight of the gross ignorance and incapacity of the man who brought them to this present strait.". Drawing on the examples of Rice and Brainard, he cultivated an atmosphere of shared sacrifice, giving his rations to a sick companion, or taking on unpleasant chores himself. And he was saying, I was just watching them throwing out the garbage, and in the last hour he saw enough food thrown out to have saved the lives of their 19 dead. Susana Fernandes Register of the District of Columbia Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. Greely's officers seethed with anger, but they agreed with him on one point: the scientific records would not be left behind. Picture Collection, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations He will be reached next year as early as possible.". Saved by Danie Ferreira. Reluctantly, the men dragged the supplies and their two fragile whaleboats onto an ice floe. They were able to move up there rather quickly. Judging just from these love letters it was obvious that he would do anything to sort of keep her attention. The dark, Arctic winter was tough on many members of the team. Garlington just got the hell out of there. Sigurður Freyr Björnsson, Art Directors Narrator: The isolation affected everyone. Jerry Kobalenko, Writer: It's a piece of rock spat out from hell and allowed to cool. Popular treatment of the infamous Greely Expedition. Narrator: Two weeks after they left Fort Conger, the ice seized up. Image Gallery The Greely Expedition on site in the Arctic. Winter was closing in. See more ideas about expedition, arctic, franklin expedition. Source for information on Greely's Arctic Expedition: Dictionary of American History dictionary. Timothy Messler ", David Brainard (Rich Porfido): "Ellison's right foot dropped off this morning without his knowledge. Narrator: Adolphus Greely died in 1935, at the age of 91. If the Army was unable to reach them there, it would leave a rescue party waiting on the Greenland side, at Littleton Island. He has white tufts as eyebrows, and three blue spots under his eyes (assumed to be markings). We unfurled the glorious Stars and Stripes to the northern breezes with an exultation impossible to describe.". pg. Narrator: From the moment Henrietta learned of the Garlington disaster, she pleaded with the Signal Corps, with the Secretary of War, with the President himself, urging they make another effort in the last remaining days of the sailing season. By the time a final relief force arrived the following summer, in 1884, only seven emaciated, unrecognizable men remained inside a half-collapsed tent. He wears a gold chain (bronze in adventures) around his … [6][7], Greely and the other survivors were themselves near death; one of the survivors died on the homeward journey. Philip Cronenwett, Historian: They almost began to understand why it was necessary to have that military command that he had been talking about for the previous several years. Deborah Clancy Porfido, Location Manager - Iceland In the end, a small band of enthusiasts had secured funding for the expedition from a lame-duck Congress. Unknown to Greely, two missions had already failed. Philip Cronenwett, Historian: The trip up was amazingly easy. At 12:15 pm, St. John's time, our voyage commenced. Most congressmen believed that the government had no business funding scientific endeavors. He spent some time in boats in Cape Breton. Jim Lotz, Writer: There was an effort to cover up and to conceal the cannibalism but there's no way you can make any information system airtight. Greely's militaristic style kept order in place but left some questioning his leadership capabilities. Narrator: As the sled was being readied, Rice's bunkmate died. Sound, Inc. Additional Music The expedition team had brought supplies to last three years at Fort Conger, but the men were wary and facing the grim reality of another year in the far North. And by this time talk of those horrors had begun to circulate. Death had come in waves — five in the second week of April, four in the middle of May. Officially, William Cross's death was chalked up to an obscure disease, but everyone knew the real cause: starvation. Adolphus Washington Greely, U.S. Army officer whose scientific expedition to the Arctic resulted in the exploration of a considerable amount of terrain on Ellesmere Island, Canada, and on coastal Greenland, where he also set a contemporary record … He is buried at Arlington Cemetery, next to Henrietta. That which was thoroughly rotten and covered with green mold was thrown on the ground, and was eagerly devoured by the half-famished party. And it got to the point where Greely warned him, "listen we can't have you stealing food." Sara E. Brown, Maps and Additional Animation With their victory secure the men settled back into the familiar routines, and explored the countryside as it was transformed by the ever-present sun. The muskox and caribou that they would've got further north at Fort Conger don't go there. On March 21, 1935, a special act of Congress awarded Greely the Medal of Honor in recognition of his long and distinguished career. He became a navigator. In July 1881, Lt. A. W. Greely and his crew of 24 scientists and explorers were bound for the last region unmarked on global maps… He was mustered out of the Volunteer Army on 22 March 1867. Production Central But he was the strongest man. Brainard saw Greely's hold over the men vanishing. Welcome to the Greely google satellite map! At the end of the first year, the plans called for a ship to re-supply the station; at the end of the second year, another ship would sail north to bring them home. Narrator: The re-supply mission had been a lackluster affair, run by a lowly Army private. That holistic sense of science is really catching fire. Narrator: The survivors dragged their crippled, screaming companion across the frozen wasteland until they were all near the point of collapse. Jerry Kobalenko, Writer: The survivors must have been in shock on that entire trip home. And if it was 60 below zero and the wind was blowing at 90 miles an hour you still needed to go out and gather that data. I much fear the horrors of our last days here. There's not a lot to do. Brainard, Lockwood and Christiansen had traveled 60 days, covering almost a thousand miles in temperatures well below zero, through pain and snow blindness to within 455 miles of the North Pole. Once again, it was clear that the Army had other priorities. "But as the men begin to contemplate that they may not return home, then suddenly leaving behind some kind of legacy for all this pain and suffering becomes more important." From Thomas Jefferson and the Boisterous Sea of Liberty Narrator: As the sun disappeared for the last time in 110 days, the men crawled into the dark, freezing hut they named Camp Clay. By then, the traumatized survivors could think of nothing but getting home. "Lieutenant Greely has shown himself to be a man of more force of character and in every way greater than I had believed him to be," one of the men wrote. His hands and feet were frozen. 1 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1888). First edition.Very good condition in dust jacket. It was the expedition's first funeral. Marti Acker He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 36th Infantry Regiment of the Regular Army on 7 March 1867 and was reassigned to the 5th Cavalry Regiment on 14 July 1869 after the 36th Infantry was disbanded. But the real surprise is that Greely really came into his own when the chips were down. However, after the relief ship still had not arrived in 1883, First Lieutenant Adolphus Greely made the executive decision to abandon Fort Conger and relocate to Cape Sabine, as the Army had planned to drop supplies at three points further south in case they were unable to reach the men at Fort Conger. Greely's plan was "insanity," he wrote, "and if my opinion is ever asked I shall tell what I think.". And, once again, they ran into the ice. Published in the press, gruesome accounts of cannibalism and murder tainted Greely's reputation as a commander as well as the team's scientific achievements for more than a century. Pamela Gaudiano First Lieutenant Adolphus Greely, commander of the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition, kept a journal from the beginning of the expedition in 1881 through his rescue in 1884. Matt Snedecor Narrator: On August 26th, 1881, the whaling ship Proteus sailed out of Lady Franklin Bay, leaving 25 men and 350 tons of supplies in one of the harshest environments on earth. Glenn Fukushima The Studios at Las Colinas, Special Thanks Norbert Wu/Footage Search "No game, no food, and apparently no hopes from Littleton Island," Greely wrote in his journal. Scientifically, the expedition was a success: Greely pressed the boundary of exploration further north than anyone before, and his party collected reams of meteorological and geographic data. There, they would take part in a revolutionary scientific mission, and explore the limits of the known world. Courtesy of Liminal, Location Scouts Geoffrey Clark Three years earlier, 25 men had set sail for the far North, where they planned to collect a wealth of scientific data about the Arctic — a vast area of the world's surface that had been described as a "sheer blank." Image result for greely expedition map. I start tomorrow, although I am pretty well used up, weakened and hungry.". [4], In 1882, Greely sighted a mountain range during a dog sledding exploration to the interior of northern Ellesmere Island and named them the Conger Range. Very respectfully, W.S. Susan A. Kaplan, Anthropologist: At Fort Conger they had everything they needed. By the time they reached Ellison, he was near death. An order was an order with David Brainard. Narrator: Whatever their reasons for being there, some of Greely's men were already distinguishing themselves. ; THE STEAM-SHIP ALERT FOR THE GREELY SEARCH EXPEDITION' 4/23/1884 New York Times.(via. ", Adolphus W. Greely (Tim Hopper): "Darling Retta, We but await the grave. The ship, carrying the expedition’s crew and 350 tons of supplies, headed for Lady Franklin Bay, a virtually unknown piece of the Arctic ice shelf across from the northern reaches of Greenland. Over the next two years he worked his way up the enlisted ranks to 1st sergeant. Maureen Jordan No one would take responsibility. As for the horrors of the last winter, someone else would have to answer for that. For three centuries England had held the honors, but no more. What, I wonder, will be our condition when we undergo a still greater reduction in our rations?". George Rice (Justin Mader): "All preparations for the ship's coming have ceased: we have accepted the inevitable conclusion. Narrator: On January 18th the men gathered on a rocky hill that would become known as Cemetery Ridge. David Brainard (Rich Porfido): "The C.O. George Rice had already led a series of searches, looking for stockpiles of food left by previous Arctic explorers. He had never again left the woman who, almost alone, had kept faith. Narrator: If Henrietta was ever going to see her husband again, she would have to turn the will of Congress, the Army, and the President. By the middle of July they had taken to climbing the hills to stare at the horizon. David Brainard (Rich Porfido): "Ellison was a pitiable sight, with his face distorted and frozen, and his limbs ice-like and useless. He was up on the bow looking for the leads ahead. At the beginning of November, he led a last effort before winter closed in. He had escaped by volunteering for the Union, had survived the bloodiest fighting in the country's history, and led one of the first units of black troops. How happy we were four years ago at the Aberdeen Hotel....". But that night a bitter storm collapsed the tent the seven survivors had occupied when the shelter flooded. Never before had rough bearded men evinced more sympathy and tenderness towards a crippled comrade.". After four weeks of hardships and setbacks, Rice and his companions had to turn back, empty-handed. Jan 10, 2015 - Explore Pinfectionist's board "Polar explorers - Adolphus Greely", followed by 8259 people on Pinterest. John’s, Newfoundland—on July 7, 1881. Now they were at the mercy of the winds and tides. Just a few hours out, Rice and Fredericks were forced to hide in their sleeping bag as a gale battered them for 22 hours. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, 1789 to 1903. On 26 July 1861, he enlisted in the 19th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment at the age of 17, after having been rejected twice before. They sailed on the ship Proteus and reached St. John's, Newfoundland, in early July 1881. Measures 4" x 2.5" and is in fine condition. For 24 hours they drifted in and out of consciousness, so that no one was quite sure whether they had really heard a ship's whistle the next evening. 1, pg. It is not the end that affrights anyone, but the road to be traveled to reach that goal. Winfield Scott Schley on the USRC Bear (a former whaler built in Greenock, Scotland), was sent to rescue the Greely party. He was member of the Cosmos Club. Led by Adolphus Washington Greely, the volunteer expedition team consisted of U.S. military officers and enlistees, two Inuits, and one medical doctor. Five weeks after departing from St. John's, Newfoundland aboard the U.S.S. Ben Hoffman Narrator: The military had been Greely's salvation. Greely Expedition/Wentzel Collection/National Geographic Stock Considered the true hero of the doomed Lady Franklin Bay Expedition (a.k.a. So almost unique among polar expeditions, they didn't have a ship with them. Jamila Wignot Aaron Nee C. A. In June 1886, Greely was promoted to captain after serving twenty years as a lieutenant and, in March 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed him as Chief Signal Officer of the U.S. Army with the rank of brigadier general. Rice.". We must advance, although I am fearful it will result in disaster.". Philip Cronenwett, Historian: It just made absolutely no sense to leave Fort Conger. He married Henrietta Nesmith in 1878; they had six children, among whom was the landscape architect Rose Greely. People like Rice and Brainard are becoming more than they were as a result of this trial by fire. Thought Equity Motion [3], Greely was without previous Arctic experience, but he and his party were able to discover many hitherto unknown miles along the coast of northwest Greenland. George Rice (Justin Mader): Thermometer range from -44.0 to -56.4, observed and corrected.... A still lower temperature today, from -47.2 to -57.2.... Jerry Kobalenko, Writer: At those temperatures pee freezes before it hits the ground, and even your breath condenses into little crystals that snow down and fall on your sleeve. Damon Smith They had a wonderful station that was warm and secure. Kevin R. Wood/NOAA, St. John's Recreations Directed by Hólmavík, Iceland b/w plates, map. Jim Lotz, Writer: It's astonishing in this extreme situation, the affection of these tough western soldiers. Two others were pouring some liquid from a rubber bottle into a tin can. Callie T. Wiser National Archives He even took his parka off and wrapped it around Rice. Henry just stole food and to hell with it. Greely and his men completed that task, only to be abandoned in one of the harshest environments on Earth. He spent years poring over scientific treatises, cultivating patrons, and studying accounts of earlier expeditions. He has yellow eyes or reddish-brown in adventures; in his beta artwork, he had white eyes and a ruby in his left eye. Jim Lotz, Writer: Ellison just collapsed. WGBH Educational Foundation Anticipating problems, the expedition came with three years of supplies. Map Explore Location Map Cards Maps Peta Exploring On 18 March 1863, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 81st United States Colored Infantry. Composed and Performed by David Prior George Rice, the official photographer on the Lady Franklin Bay scientific expedition to the Arctic in 1881, kept a journal until he froze to death in April 1884. Greely and his crew of 24 scientists and explorers were bound for the last region unmarked on global maps… One of his fingers fell off a few days ago, and several others will follow in a short time.". Image Bank Film/Getty Images The fact was carefully concealed from him. But the scandal that haunted Greely had also tainted his scientific achievements. By the end of August they knew that the ship wasn't coming. [citation needed] In 1911 he represented the United States Army at the coronation of King George V.[citation needed]. Card signed and dated shortly after their rescue in 1884. By summer, a relief ship would pick them up and bring them home. With only a makeshift shelter and virtually no animals to be found in the desolate region, men began to die one by one of hunger and exposure to the elements. At the new limit of the known world they flew a flag Henrietta had sewn, and carved the logo of Brainard's favorite beer into the rocks. Greely Expedition). Whereas Lewis and Clark suffered one fatality, Greely lost nineteen out of twenty-five men. After the relief ships that were supposed to return them to the U.S. failed to reach Lady Franklin Bay for two successive years, authorities in the U.S. Army became desperate to retrieve the 25 abandoned men. .... We at last reached Camp Clay at 2:10 am. Patricia Yusah, Marketing and Communications Greely was even more isolated than he knew. Greely forbade his men from lying down during the day, so they would sit at benches arguing. George W. He was lost. Narrator: "Rice," Brainard wrote, "was as brave and noble as any man the world has ever known.". Ghosts of Cape Sabine: The Harrowing True Story of The Greely Expedition. For the first time since the expedition had begun two years earlier, they saw in Greely their only chance of survival. Greely Expedition ranks with the Lewis and Clark Expedition in importance. [1], In 1881, First Lieutenant Greely was given command of the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition on the ship Proteus. They looked forward to the relief ship; to new faces, letters from home, fresh supplies. Just so huge and so uncaring and so vast in that very, very real sense that makes you feel so insignificant. In July 1881, 25 men sailed out on an American expedition to create an Arctic scientific base in the Lady Franklin Bay region. Greely is a blue-grey wolf, with a light blue underbelly (depends on artwork variants). Michael Robinson, Historian: This was not simply some new Arctic expedition. Maps and Additional Animation Aaron Nee Alisa Placas Frutman. David Brainard (Rich Porfido): "We have crossed the Rubicon, and to turn back now is out of the question. With winter setting in Greely and his men were forced to winter at Cape Sabine with inadequate rations and little fuel. Private Henry will be shot today. After the Civil War, Greely became a companion of the District of Columbia Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States – a military society composed of Union officers and their descendants. Philip Cronenwett, Historian: Rice was not only the photographer on the expedition, but if anything had to be done Rice was volunteering to do it. [5], A rescue expedition, led by Capt. I tried to cheer him, but he would repeat in a low, pleading voice, 'please kill me, won't you!' The two men took shelter behind an iceberg. Jonathan Weaver, Gaffers Jim Lotz, Writer: The whole atmosphere began to change as the winter got darker and darker and colder and colder. 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